About 5% of people living in the EU are non-EU citizens
On 1 January 2020, 23 million citizens of a non-member country lived in one of the EU Member States, representing 5.1% of the EU population.
In addition, there were 13.5 million people living in one of the EU Member States with the citizenship of another EU Member State, representing 3.0% of the EU population.
Highest shares of non-nationals in Luxembourg, lowest in Poland and Romania
In relative terms, the EU Member State with the highest share of non-national citizens was Luxembourg (47% of its total population).
A high proportion of foreign citizens (10% or more of the resident population) was also observed in Malta, Cyprus, Austria, Estonia, Latvia, Ireland, Germany, Belgium and Spain.
In contrast, non-nationals represented less than 1% of the population in Poland and Romania.
In most EU Member States, the majority of non-nationals were citizens of non-EU countries. Only in Belgium, Ireland, Luxembourg, Austria and Slovakia the non-nationals were mainly citizens of another EU Member State.